Прочитайте текст еще раз. Выпишите незнакомые слова. Переведите их


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Gompers guided labor unions through many of their earliest crises – the Homestead and Pullman strikes, the open shop campaign, adverse court decisions, World War I, and the Red Scare following the Russian Revolution, among others. He led the movement conservatively through a period when the United States was bitterly hostile to labor unions, attempting to make trade unionism a respectable alternative to radicalism.
Step 4
Прочитайте текст еще раз. Выпишите незнакомые слова. Переведите их, учитывая контекст.

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Step 5
Прочитайте текст третий раз. Концентрируйтесь на основных идеях текста и значениях новых слов.
Step 6
Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
высокая оплата _____________________________________________________

условия труда ______________________________________________________

сокращение рабочего времени ________________________________________

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политическая деятельность __________________________________________

вмешательство правительства ________________________________________

иммигрировать в ___________________________________________________

стать президентом __________________________________________________

местный союз ______________________________________________________

национальный уровень ______________________________________________

конституционный комитет ___________________________________________

попытка объединить ________________________________________________

союз ремесленников ________________________________________________

переизбирать на пост ________________________________________________

возглавить профсоюз ________________________________________________

решение суда ______________________________________________________

возглавлять движение _______________________________________________
Step 7
Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Составьте предложения с ними:
labor movement, to improve the lot, union members, free collective bargaining, work with the system, the attempt failed, bitterly hostile, to make trade unions.

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Step 8
Выделите и запишите ключевые слова текста (5-7 words).

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Step 9
Найдите в Glossary следующие определения. Переведите их письменно на русский язык:
Capitalism _________________________________________________________

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Labor _____________________________________________________________

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Economic profit _____________________________________________________

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Barter _____________________________________________________________

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Business firm _______________________________________________________

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Cartel _____________________________________________________________

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Step 1
Прочитайте за преподавателем следующие слова и словосочетания. Найдите и подчеркните их в тексте. Прочитайте самостоятельно.
Libertarian, complicated, language, wholeheartedly, healthy, fluctuation, cause, downturn, laissez faire, diehard, eloquently, honor, eventually, associate, licensing, physician, insurance.
Step 2
Переведите без словаря следующие слова и словосочетания:
monetarist, monetary, to advocate, idea, popular, public figure, to attack, constant, in accordance with, to produce, market, liberal philosophy, university, economic theory.
Step 3
Прочитайте текст без словаря.
MILTON FRIEDMAN
Milton Friedman, America’s best-known monetarist and the apostle, of libertarian economics, is a bold and outspoken defender of the free market system and advocate of a monetary rule. Because he is able to express complicated ideas in simple, often colorful language, Friedman is popular with the media and is a well-known public figure.

Friedman is a respected economist who has attacked the foundations of Keynesian economics. Friedman also believes wholeheartedly that free markets can do almost anything and that they work best without government interference. According to him, the key to a healthy, stable economy is for the money supply to expand at a constant rate in accordance with growth in the economy’s capacity to produce. Business fluctuations are caused by a short-run, erratic changes in the money supply, including such major downturns as the Great Depression, which Friedman says would not have developed if the Federal Reserve had increased the money supply after the stock market crash of 1929.

He is a firm believer in laissez-faire capitalism and a diehard fan of Adam Smith. He has attempted to build on Smith’s classic liberal philosophy and defends it eloquently. For his work, he has received nearly every significant honor the field of economics has to offer, including the Nobel Prize in 1976. A Monetary History of the United States, Capitalism and Freedom, and Free to Choose are among his best-known works. He taught at the University of Chicago for 30 years, where he eventually led the strongly free-market economists associated with that university. He retired in 1977 and currently works out of the Hoover Institute at Stanford University.

In an attempt to replace government influence with market solutions, Friedman has advocated the elimination of licensing of physicians, public schools, agricultural price supports, and food stamps. He has made major contributions to economic theory in the areas of risk and insurance and by describing consumption patters that are based on wealth, rather than current income alone.


Step 4
Прочитайте текст второй раз. Выпишите незнакомые слова. Переведите их, учитывая контекст. Запишите перевод.

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Step 5
Прочитайте текст третий раз. Концентрируйтесь на основных идеях текста и значениях новых слов.
Step 6
Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих русских словосочетаний:
система свободного рынка ___________________________________________

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выражать идеи _____________________________________________________

быть популярным в СМИ ____________________________________________

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уважаемый экономист _______________________________________________

согласно М. Фридману ______________________________________________

здоровая экономика _________________________________________________

правительственное влияние __________________________________________

вносить вклады ____________________________________________________

зона риска _________________________________________________________

в попытке (заменить) ________________________________________________


Step 7
Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Составьте предложения с ними.
Best-known monetarist, outspoken defender, colorful language, public figure, to increase the money supply.

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Step 8
Выделите и запишите ключевые слова текста (5-7 words).

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Step 9
Найдите в Glossary следующие определения. Переведите их письменно на русский язык.
Supply ____________________________________________________________

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Income effect _______________________________________________________

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Centrally planned economy ____________________________________________

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Command economy __________________________________________________

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Change in supply ____________________________________________________

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Step 1
Прочитайте за преподавателем следующие слова и словосочетания. Найдите и подчеркните их в тексте. Прочитайте самостоятельно.
Widely, unofficial, received, Ph.D., precise, techniques, scientific, thereby, earning, masterpiece, recessionary, frequently, critique, thought, award, achievement, precision.
Step 2
Переведите без словаря следующие слова и словосочетания.
Professional, public, doctoral dissertation, mathematical, analysis, profession, basic principle, million, student, international, cycle, comments, radical, critique, technical, critical, complex generalization, generation.
Step 3
Прочитайте текст без словаря.
PAUL SAMUELSON
The first American to win the Nobel Prize in economics is also one of the few economists today to be widely respected by both professional economists and the general public. Paul Samuelson, an unofficial adviser to Presidents on the economy and a professor for more than 30 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was born in 1915 in Gary, Indiana, and received his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard in 1941.

His doctoral dissertation, Foundations of Economic Analysis, developed precise mathematical meanings for economic concepts. by introducing these techniques, he improved the level of scientific analysis of the profession as a whole, thereby earning himself a Nobel Prize in 1970. His dissertation is still considered a masterpiece today. Samuelson has explained basic economic principles to millions of students through an introductory textbook and has been published widely on topics ranging from international trade to welfare economics and monetary policy. He is one of the most prominent Keynesian economists writing today and supports government policies that call for fiscal and monetary measures to counter inflationary and recessionary cycles in the economy.

His comments frequently appear in Newsweek and The New York Times. His textbook is considered to be so much the mainstay of economic thought that radical thinkers put together The Anti-Samuelson, a chapter-by-chapter critique of his book and thereby a critique of modern U.S. economic thought. He has won every major award the economics profession has to offer, including the first John Bates Clark Medal for outstanding achievement by an economist under the age of 40.

Even though Samuelson has raised the technical precision of economic analysis, he is critical of those who believe economists can give definitive answers to questions that are often extremely complex. Generalizations can seldom be made, concludes this adviser to Presidents and educator of more than a generation of economists.


Step 4
Прочитайте текст второй раз. Выпишите незнакомые слова. Переведите их, учитывая контекст. Запишите перевод.

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Step 5
Прочитайте текст третий раз. Концентрируйтесь на основных идеях текста и значениях новых слов.
Step 6
Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих русских словосочетаний.
завоевать Нобелевскую Премию ______________________________________

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быть широко уважаемым экономистом ________________________________

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неофициальный Советник Президента _________________________________

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докторская диссертация _____________________________________________

экономические понятия _____________________________________________

основные экономические принципы ___________________________________

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международная торговля ____________________________________________

денежная политика _________________________________________________

экономическая мысль _______________________________________________

выдающееся достижение ____________________________________________

экономический анализ ______________________________________________
Step 7
Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Составьте предложения с ними.
Professional economist, to receive Ph.D. in economics, to develop mathematical meanings, to improve the level, to explain basic economic principles, to support government policies, to give definitive answers.

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Step 8
Выделите и запишите ключевые слова текста (5-7 words).

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Step 9
Найдите в Glossary следующие определения. Переведите их письменно на русский язык.
Classical quantity theory of money ______________________________________

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Economic system ____________________________________________________

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Gross national product (GNP) __________________________________________

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Manager ___________________________________________________________

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Microeconomics ____________________________________________________

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Step 1

Прочитайте за преподавателем следующие слова и словосочетания. Найдите и подчеркните их в тексте. Прочитайте самостоятельно.


Interaction, approached, research, social, experience, legislature, anticipating, receipt, blindly, accuracy, controversy, promise, outraged, to quote.
Step 1A
Прочитайте следующие хронологические даты текста.
Step 2
Переведите без словаря следующие слова и словосочетания.
Academically, center, social, consultant, director, information, budget, program, office, reputation, professionalism, systematically, balanced budget, congressmen, optimistic, address, publication, objectivity, politician, party.
Step 3
Прочитайте текст без словаря.
ALICE RIVLIN
Alice Rivlin has long been interested in the interaction between economics and government policy making. She approached the topic academically first as a research fellow at the Brookings Institution, a famous center for social research.

She gained first-hand experience with the topic as a government consultant and as the first director of the Congressional Budget Office, which collects economic information for the legislature and analyzes the President’s proposed budget, to include estimating the cost of proposed programs and anticipating tax receipts. Thanks to this office, lawmakers do not have to accept blindly the President’s estimate of the economic impact of his budget.

Rivlin headed the office from its foundation in 1975 until 1983, when she returned to the Brookings Institution as the director of economic studies. She helped establish a reputation of professionalism and accuracy for the budget office, enabling Congress to be better and more systematically informed. During her tenure, she did create controversy by predicting correctly, it turned out, that the President would be unable to keep his promise of a balanced budget by 1984. Republican congressmen were outraged, and many tried to plot her removal. However, when her predictions concurred with, or were more optimistic than those of the President, he was happy to quote her in televised addresses to the nation.

Born inPhiladelphia in 1931, Rivlin earned her Ph.D. in economics from Radcliffe in 1958. She then went to the Brookings Institution, where she worked on a number of publications dealing with topics in economic policy. A lifelong Democrat, she has received high marks for objectivity from independent economists and praise from politicians in both parties.


Step 4
Прочитайте текст второй раз. Выпишите незнакомые слова. Переведите их, учитывая контекст. Запишите перевод.

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Step 5
Прочитайте текст третий раз. Концентрируйтесь на основных идеях текста и значениях новых слов.
Step 6
Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих русских словосочетаний.
правительственная политика _________________________________________

социальное исследование ____________________________________________

правительственный консультант ______________________________________

стоимость программы _______________________________________________

правильно прогнозировать ___________________________________________

обращение к нации _________________________________________________

ряд публикаций ____________________________________________________

экономическая политика _____________________________________________

независимый экономист _____________________________________________

обе партии ________________________________________________________


Step 7
Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Составьте предложения с ними.
To approach the topic, the first director, to collect economic information, to analyze the proposed budget, to keep one’s promise, to earn Ph.D. in economics, topics in economic policy.
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Step 8
Выделите и запишите ключевые слова текста (5-7 words)
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Step 9
Найдите в Glossary следующие определения. Переведите их письменно на русский язык.
Market failure ______________________________________________________

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Mixed economy _____________________________________________________

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National income _____________________________________________________

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Nominal GNP ______________________________________________________

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